The New Deal changed the way Americans perceived the presidency and social safety nets. Churches and private charities were unable to cope with the scale of hardship in a nation with a 25% unemployment rate, and an increasing number of people were unable to reconcile American values and social duty with the laissez-faire Social Darwinism that decreed that the destitute deserved their fate.1 Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s election campaign was to realign the Democratic and Republican parties, bringing progressives and reformers firmly onboard with the Democrats, and cementing Gilded Age conservatives on the Republican side.2 Continue reading
The modern day Republican party bears no resemblance to the Republican party of the 19th century abolitionists. There was a shift from the 1880s to the 1970s, beginning with the 1876 court case US vs Cruikshanks, which set the precedent that mob violence aimed at intimidating voters was a matter for local law enforcement rather than the federal government. This allowed the KKK to systemically terrorize black voters and Republican whites to the point where the Republican Party ceased to exist in the South, leaving only varying degrees of Jacksonian Democrat. Meanwhile, cities in the North saw an influx of immigrants who tended to ally themselves with the Democrats due to the party’s populist overtones and lack of support for Prohibition, another Republican morality reform. Thus, the northern Democrats began moving left. Republican president Herbert Hoover’s failure to prevent the 1929 economic crash and timid attempts to relieve the suffering of the Great Depression that followed soured many progressives and liberals against the Republican party, and the success of FDR’s New Deal programs firmly cemented the Democrats as the party of labour unions, urban politics, minorities, and the working poor. However it also angered many southern Democrats, who saw themselves as betrayed by their party. This group deserted en masse after the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s, and joined the now-obsolete Republican religious reformers who saw themselves as bastions of American morality. The process was completed in the aftermath of Roe vs Wade, when the anti-abortion evangelicals jumped onboard, drawing off much of the southern vote.
The first successful atomic bomb test took place at Los Alamos, New Mexico on July 16th, 1945.1 It was the culmination of three years’ worth of research and development for the international group of scientists working with Canadian uranium2 on the Manhattan Project, and was to change the route of international diplomacy in a way that no one could have anticipated at the time. Continue reading